It has been a good year for Europe’s far-right, nationalist parties, who are especially strong in Central Europe.
Arguably the most successful this year was Austria’s Freedom Party (FPÖ).
Unlike many other nationalists ostracised by liberal, centrist parties, the FPÖ translated electoral gains into real power. It entered a coalition government with the conservative People’s Party (ÖVP).
In neighbouring Germany, the big shock of the September election was the success of nationalist Alternative for Germany (AfD), which entered parliament for the first time, winning 94 seats.
In the Netherlands, Geert Wilders’s Freedom Party (PVV) came second. In France, Marine Le Pen of the National Front (FN) reached the run-off for the presidency, and was defeated by the liberal Emmanuel Macron.