‘An Everyday Reality’: How France’s Way of Life, Laws Have Evolved in the Face of Islamist Terrorism

PARIS—About a third of the way up Paris’s iconic Avenue des Champs Élysées, in front of a Marks & Spencer store, the trunk of a trimmed horse chestnut tree is ringed by two knotted ropes from which dried, wilted flowers hang.

The tree and the decaying tributes tied around it are easily overlooked, unless you know what happened here in April.

In the nearby lampposts bullet holes remained gouged into the painted green metal like someone had pushed a finger into a pile of play dough. Evidence of when an Islamist militant fatally gunned down 37-year-old French police officer Xavier Jugelé on April 20.