Two Chinese tourists were arrested in Berlin for making Hitler salutes outside the German parliament on Saturday.
Criminal proceedings have been started against the middle-aged men for using symbols from a banned organisation.
The pair have been released on bail of €500 (£450; $600) each.
Germany has strict laws on hate speech and symbols linked to Hitler and the Nazis.
The men – aged 36 and 49 – could face a fine or a prison sentence of up to three years, according to police.