Bal Masqué

Global terrorism and cryptoviral extortion may seem unrelated but they both rely on the feasibility of anonymous or encrypted cooperation between non-state actors. Ransomware is made possible not only by asymmetric encryption, which makes kidnapping files possible, but also by anonymous digital money like Bitcoin, which makes illicit payments practical. Terrorism needs secure messaging to reach out to “Lone Wolves.” In their own ways both ISIS and the Petya virus illustrate the weakness of the Westphalian State model by posing challenges that could formerly not be mounted by groups without territory.