The Joint Council for Qualifications, which represents exam boards, said it could run large-entry tests in the morning to prevent Muslim pupils being forced to take them when they are hungry.
It is believed that the move will affect subjects such as English and maths in 2015 which traditionally cater for the largest number of pupils.
The move comes as members of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers called on examiners to take account of the impact of Ramadan when Muslims are supposed to fast during daylight hours.
It is feared that it will be harder for pupils to concentrate and “perform at their very best” because the holy month begins in mid-June next year when GCSEs and A-levels are often scheduled.
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Abdul Choudhury, an ATL member from Tower Hamlets, London, said that it was the first time in 25 years that Ramadan will take place during exam season, adding that it would have “quite an effect on a number of schools across our country”.
“We have quite a significant number of Muslim students and I have no doubt whatsoever that standards will be affected by this,” he said.
“We work so hard as teachers to try and get just that one mark, that two marks, and if kids are going into their exams – 16-year-olds, 18-year-olds, even university students – are going into exams without any water, and food, it will have an effect on their overall results.”
Ramadan will be in the middle of exam season for the next seven years, it emerged.
Addressing the ATL annual conference, Barry Lingard, a teacher from Bolton said: “Young Muslim pupils will be at, what we believe, is a severe disadvantage. Fasting from dawn to dusk will impact on pupils in various ways.
“These young people will not be eating or drinking. It will be harder for them to concentrate. It will be harder for them to perform at their very best.”
The JCQ – the umbrella body for exam boards – has now confirmed that it is looking at scheduling exams to be sympathetic to Muslim pupils.
It could see the biggest exams take place in the morning rather than the afternoon to make sure it does not put them at a disadvantage.
Michael Turner, JCQ director, said: “We are consulting on the exams timetable for 2015 and we will be looking at the impact of Ramadan on that timetable.”
Mr Lingard, of the union’s executive said it was “highly unlikely” that exam boards will change summer timetables.
But he added: “JCQ have said that they will work collaboratively on a timetable with Muslim groups to review whether a balance of morning and afternoon slots for large entry exams is more appropriate, or just morning slots.”